Capacitors, What They Are And How They Work?

A capacitor has two terminals. Together with the resistors and inductors, they are one of the most basic passive electrical components we use. If we look at a circuit it is very difficult not to find an internal capacitor.

What makes condensers special is their ability to store energy; I’m like a fully charged battery. The most common applications include local storage of energy, suppression of voltage peaks, and filtering of complex signals (Safety Certified Capacitors).

In this article, we will examine all types of condenser-related topics, including:

  • How a condenser is made?
  • How a capacitor works?

There are two ways to draw a capacitor in a scheme. They always have two terminals, which go to connect to the rest of the circuit. The symbol of the capacitors consists of two parallel lines, which are flat or curved; both lines must be parallel to each other, close, but they should not touch each other (this is actually representative of how the condenser is made) is hard to describe, easier to show. The symbol with the curved line indicates that the capacitor is polarized , it is probably an electrolytic capacitor.

Each capacitor must be accompanied by a name, C1, C2, etc .. and a value. The value should indicate the capacity of the capacitor; how many Farad has. Speaking of Farad …

Capacity unit

Not all capacitors are the same. Each capacitor is constructed to have a specific amount of capacitance. The capacitance of a capacitor indicates the amount of charge it is able to store, more capacity means more capacity to store a charge. The standard unit of capacity is called Farad, abbreviated F (Safety Certified Capacitors).

It turns out that a farad is a lot of capacity, also 0.001F (1 milifarad – 1MF) is a large capacitor. Usually you will see capacitors that wander in the range of pico (10 ^ -12 ) and microfarad (10 ^ -6 ).

How a condenser is made?

The schematic symbol of a capacitor actually resembles how it is made. A condenser is created from two metal plates and an insulating material called dielectric. The metal plates are positioned very close together, in parallel, but the dielectric ensures that they do not touch.

The dielectric can be made of all types of insulating materials: paper, glass, rubber, ceramic, plastic, or anything that can impede current flow.

The plates are made of a conductive material: aluminum, tantalum, silver, or other metals. They are each connected to a terminal wire, which is what eventually connects to the rest of the circuit.

The capacitance of a capacitor (farad many ha) depends on how it is constructed. More capacity requires a large capacitor. Plates with a larger overlap surface provide more capacity, while more distance between the plates means less capacity. The dielectric material also has an effect on how many farads a capacitor has.

How a capacitor works?

When the current flows into a condenser, the charges are “locked” on the plates because they can not go beyond the insulating dielectric. Electrons (particles with a negative charge) are sucked into one of the plates, thus becoming negatively charged. The large mass of negative charges on one plate pushes the other charges onto the other plate, making it positively charged.

The positive and negative charges on each of these plates attract each other, because that is what makes opposing charges. But, with the dielectric between them, as long as they want to join, the charges will always be locked on the plate (until they have another place to go). The stationary charges on these plates create an electric field , which influence electrical potential energy and voltage . When a group of charges are on a capacitor of this type, the capacitor can store electrical energy, as a battery can store chemical energy.

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